Sonic Spinball is a pinball video game developed by the Sega Technical Institute and published by Sega. It was originally released for the Mega Drive/Genesis in North America and Europe in November 1993 and in Japan the following month. It was later ported to the Game Gear and Master System in 1994 and 1995 respectively. The game has been re-released on eleven different consoles and has been included in Genesis-related compilations. The player controls Sonic the Hedgehog, who is manipulated like a pinball in various machine-like environments for most of the game, while the series antagonist Doctor Robotnik tries to enslave the population on the planet Mobius. Sonic Spinball was commissioned by Sega when it became clear that a new Sonic the Hedgehog game could not be completed in time for the 1993 holiday season, since the majority of their staff were developing Sonic the Hedgehog 3. The game was hastily developed, with most work completed within two months. It received mixed reviews upon release; most critics praised the game's novelty and graphics but faulted its control scheme. (Full article...) Recently featured:
In this post, you’ll learn a little bit about graph theory, how to import the clickstream data into the programming language and statistical software “R”, how to convert it into a graph, and how to visualize it to create the figure above. Some familiarity with R is required to follow along, but a list of free resources is available at the bottom for those who are interested in learning it.
First, you’ll need R installed on your system. It is available on Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) for Linux, macOS, and Windows. Then you will need to install some additional packages which are available on CRAN:
If trying to attach the ggraph package with library(ggraph) gives you an error, you need to install the development version of ggplot2:
A graph is a structure containing a set of objects where pairs of objects called vertices (also called nodes) are connected to each other via edges (also called links). Those edges represent relationships and they may be directed or undirected (mutual), and they may have weights. Two vertices that are endpoints of the same edge are adjacent to each other, and the set of vertices adjacent to the vertex V is called a neighborhood of V.
For example, if we have a group of people and we know how much each person trusts someone else, we can represent this network as a directed graph where each vertex is a person and each weighted, directed edge between vertices A and B is how much person A trusts person B (if at all!). Each person who A trusts or who trusts A collectively form a neighborhood of people adjacent to A.
There are additional terms to describe different properties of graphs (such as when a path of edges exists between any two vertices), but they.....
Coin of Cleopatra Selene and Antiochus XIII Cleopatra Selene (died 69 BC) was a queen of SeleucidSyria (83–69 BC). The daughter of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III of Egypt, she became the queen of Egypt in 115 BC when she was married to her brother, King Ptolemy IX, and later probably married King Ptolemy X. In 103 BC, Cleopatra III established an alliance with the Seleucid ruler Antiochus VIII; Cleopatra Selene was sent to be his bride, and stayed with him until his assassination in 96 BC. The widowed queen married her previous husband's brother, Antiochus IX, who died in 95 BC. She then married her stepson, Antiochus X, who probably died in 92 BC. She hid somewhere in Syria with her children until 83 BC, when the Seleucid thrones in Antioch and Damascus became vacant. Declaring her son Antiochus XIII king, she ruled alongside him, according to depictions on coins from the period. She was ousted when the people of Antioch and Damascus, exhausted by the Seleucids' civil wars, invited foreign monarchs as their new rulers. She then controlled several coastal towns until she was besieged, captured and executed in 69 BC by Tigranes in Ptolemais. (Full article...) Recently featured:
Have you ever wondered how it’s possible for there to be two Jungle Book movies to be in development at the same time? Why everything seems to be based on a work by Shakespeare? Or why it always seems like someone is telling a version of The Wizard of Oz? The answer is that these works are in the public domain, meaning that copyright law no longer prevents other artists from adapting them to create new works.
One major rationale for copyright is supposedly that, by giving an exclusive set of rights to artists for their work, we incentivize creativity by making it possible for artists to benefit from releasing works to the public. But copyright protection is supposed to be limited, and once it expires, a work enters the public domain, where anyone can use it.
In the United States, the length of the copyright term has been steadily extended so that published works are effectively copyrighted for 95 years (for corporate works) or until 70 years after an author’s death (for individual works). This has resulted in a public domain that saw increasingly less materials being added to it, limiting the ability of artists to build on works that came before them. The last time Congress changed the law in the 1998 Copyright Term Extension Act, it was applied retroactively. Effectively, it meant that nothing has entered the public domain in the United States for years. January 1, 2019 will mark the end of this dry spell as works first published in 1923 will finally enter the public domain. That mean works like Cecil B. DeMille’s The Ten Commandments and Universal’s silent version of The Hunchback of Notre Dame, two movies released in 1923, will be eligible to join the public domain.
Writers, filmmakers, musicians, and artists wear their influences on their sleeves, and whole branches of critique is devoted to teasing them out. It’s not new. The Aeneid was Virgil playing in the universe of Homer. Recently, and infamously, Fifty Shades of Grey was originally a piece of Twilight fanfiction. The Internet speaks in the language of pop culture: GIFs, mashups, retellings, fan fiction—all find life on the Internet.
It’s not just small artists that rely on the public domain. Disney’s built an empire on making movies based on public domain fairy tales. Just last year, Disney released a live-action version of its animated take on Beauty and the Beast, a story that has been around since the 1700s. But Disney hasn’t been the best in allowing its own works to become part of the public domain. Disney is a huge beneficiary of the extended copyright term, locking down more and more famous works and worlds for its sole.....
Most people in the world have never heard of Wikimedia Commons. They have no idea what it is, who is behind it, and why it exists.
And that’s surprising, as it is the photo and media site that helps power Wikipedia.
Most of the pictures you see on the world’s largest encyclopedia come from Commons, which at 43 million files is one of the world’s largest freely licensed media repositories for “educational media content,” as defined in its scope. (This means that most media files you’d like to upload are acceptable—but not all.) Commons has its own distinct community of volunteer editors who take and upload photographs, enfor.....
Lord Chief Justice Alexander Cockburn The Eastbourne manslaughter (R v Hopley) was an 1860 legal case in Eastbourne, England, about the death of a teenage pupil at the hands of his teacher, Thomas Hopley. Reginald Cancellor's parents gave Hopley permission to use corporal punishment to overcome what he perceived as the boy's stubbornness. After the boy died, the teacher insisted that the beating was justifiable and that he was not guilty of any crime. An inquest into Cancellor's death began when his brother requested an autopsy. As a result of the inquest Hopley was arrested and charged with manslaughter. He was found guilty at trial and sentenced to four years in prison. Hopley's conviction was upheld by the Court of King's Bench(Chief Justice Alexander Cockburn pictured), which said that a schoolmaster "may for the purpose of correcting what is evil in the child, inflict moderate and reasonable corporal punishment." The trial was sensationalised by the Victorian press and incited debate over the use of corporal punishment in schools. Physical discipline was officially banned in British schools more than a century later. (Full article...) Recently featured:
Yesterday marked the launch of the third year of the #1Lib1Ref campaign!* The campaign is simple: we invite librarians to give Wikipedia a birthday gift of a citation, helping make sure that information on the encyclopedia is verifiable and grounded in reliable sources.
Have you ever looked up a Wikipedia article about your favorite TV show just to end up hours later reading on some obscure episode in medieval history? First, know that you’re not the only person who’s done this. Roughly one out of three Wikipedia readers look up a topic because of a mention in the media, and often get lost following whatever link their curiosity takes them to.
Aggregate data on how readers browse Wikipedia contents can provide priceless insights into the structure of free knowledge and how different topics relate to each other. It can help identify gaps in content coverage (do readers stop browsing when they can’t find what they are looking for?) and help determine if the link structure of the largest online encyclopedia is optimally designed to support a learner’s needs.
Perhaps the most obvious usage of this data is to find where Wikipedia gets its traffic from. Not only clickstream data can be used to confirm that most traffic to Wikipedia comes via search engines, it can also be analyzed to find out—at any given time—which topics were popular on social media that resulted in a large number of clicks to Wikipedia articles.
In 2015, we released a first snapshot of this data, aggregated from nearly 7 million page requests. A step-by-step introduction to this dataset, with several examples of analysis it can be used for, is in a blog post by Ellery Wulczyn, one of the authors of the original dataset.
Since this data was first made available, it has been reused in a growing body of scholarly research. Researchers have studied how Wikipedia content policies affect and bias reader navigation patterns (Lamprecht et al, 2015); how clickstream data can shed light on the topical distribution of a reading session (Rodi et al, 2017); how the links readers follow are shaped by article structure and link position (.....
Ankylosaurus was an armoreddinosaur that lived roughly 67 million years ago, at the very end of the Cretaceous Period. This genus was among the last of the non-avian dinosaurs, living alongside Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops, and Edmontosaurus. Its name means "fused lizard"; bones in its skull and other parts of its body were fused, increasing their strength. Ankylosaurus was up to 6.25 m (20.5 feet) long and 1.7 m (5.6 feet) tall, weighing about 4.8–8 tonnes (11,000–18,000 lb). It had a broad, robust body with a wide, low skull. The front parts of the jaws were covered in a beak, with rows of small, leaf-shaped teeth behind it, adapted for a herbivorous diet. It was covered in armor plates for protection against predators, with bony half-rings covering the neck, and had a large club on the end of its tail which may have been used as a weapon. Fossils from a few specimens of Ankylosaurus have been found in various geological formations in western North America, but a complete skeleton has not been discovered. (Full article...) Recently featured: